Saturday, February 18, 2017

What's Next On My List? Creed

Growing up I was a big fan of Sylvester Stallone. And this is the third year that I am dedicating February to Stallone movies. And why wouldn't I? They are awesome: even the silly ones have charm to them. So please enjoy the third installment of #StalloneMonth

The son of Apollo Creed, Donnie, seeks the help of Rocky Balboa because he has a fighter in him that is still very rough around the edges. Apollo had died before he was born and Rocky has no one left, as his best friend and wife passed away and his son decided to move as he could not handle the weight of being a Balboa. Rocky decides to help Donnie and the two get closer and became a family as they try to make the champion out of Donnie that his dad, both his dads, were once.

I'll tell you right now that he should have won the Oscar for this part. Stallone not only brought back the character of Rocky that so many people fell in love with - bit slow but with a heart of gold -, but he managed to elevate it to another level. I am sorry but the main character did not have much... of a character. That is the best way to describe it. His performance was basically repeating "I want to fight", but with synonyms and different ways. That was it. Rocky on the other hand... the first scene where you start crying is when you see him go to the cemetery, where his wife and best friend are buried. He gets a chair he keeps in the tree, letting you know already that he goes there often. He then tells Donnie about his son who moved away. This is behind the scenes information, but in the other Rocky movies his son was played by his real son, Sage Stallone, who passed away at the age of 36. Rocky tells Donnie that his son is happy in Canada, and that makes you smile, the idea of him still being alive somewhere out there. Nonetheless, Rocky is still alone.
He is then diagnosed with cancer, because you were not crying enough already... and he refuses the treatment at first, saying that his wife tried that. Adrian, whom he even named his restaurant after, died of cancer. Donnie argues with him that he too needs to fight and that is when he gives him a speech about the fact that he has lost everything. That he has no reason to fight anymore, if he can get back Adrian maybe, but otherwise, what is the point? And Donnie is offended of course, as he thought of Rocky as family. The two start to fight together, Rocky battling the cancer and Donnie battling the ghost of his dad as well as he can.

Watch it? If you liked the original, yes, because it has the same pace, colors and feeling to it. The idea is very smart and the delivery on the part of Stallone is outstanding. I remember him saying that it has been so long since he's been to the Oscars, he no longer owns the appropriate tux! To me he was the clear winner and this movie will be a reminder of that always!

Until the next item on my list!
_ _ _ _ _ 

Adonis Johnson - Michael B. Jordan
Rocky Balboa - Sylvester Stallone
Bianca - Tessa Thompson
Mary Anne Creed - Phylicia Rashad
'Pretty' Ricky Conlan - Tony Bellew

Monday, February 13, 2017

10 Books You Should Read Because Why Not?

This is list is for the lonely hearts, the ones who tonight will 
seek the company of a book after a long day, and everyone else who
would like to read, read and read!

I keep seeing hundreds of lists of books that are a total 'must', and you should read them before school, or during, or after, or all the time!!! You should, in other words, feel really bad about not having read those books! Shame on you! And I always felt like... okay. I guess, that is true, but I do think that if I read The Lord Of The Rings after I am 30 years old, it would still make an impact. Same with Crime and Punishment or, the what is now a bestseller again in America, 1984 by Orwell. These books are timeless, they are still available for a reason and nobody - and I mean nobody - should make you feel bad about not having read them. Why? Because reading is fun! It is meant to be something you do out of pleasure, no wonder kids hate reading in schools... there is a sense of obligation that ruins it. Not to mention that many school, like the ones in Hungary, teach them chronologically and you might not be able to understand a book at 16 that you actually could love when you are 45! That is why I decided to compile a list of my 10 favorite books as a recommendation instead of claiming that they are super life changing books and you should have them on your shelf RIGHT NOW! If you are looking for something to read, maybe you'll find something here. Who knows? Happy reading!

10) Italo Calvino - Se una notte d'inverno un viaggiatore (If on a winter's night a traveler)

Strong start, this is a book by Italian writer Italo Calvino, published in 1979. In it you, the reader, goes on an adventure to retrieve a certain book, the one by Calvino, only to stumble onto newer and newer books that you never get to finish. Next to the tale of your adventures reader, you also get 10 different books, written in 10 different styles and belonging to 10 different literary categories. It really showcases the talent of this wonderful author. I am planning to write my BA thesis on this book, so I am invested in translations and literary criticism and I can say, it was praised for the right reasons. I recommend it to anyone who wishes to get to know more about Italian authors!

9) Charlotte Brontë - Jane Eyre

Jane Eyre is the governess of Adele, a girl whom Mr Rochester is the guardian of. The latter becomes fond of Jane and the two fall in love, but she discovers that the house they live in holds a big secret... It was the summer of 2011, I saw the trailer for a new adaptation of this book and I decided that I was not gonna start my English studies without first having have read it. And I just could not put it down... During the family vacation I was told off for not enjoying family time but wanting to read and read... I adore this book so much. Years later I had an exam, oral one, and the teacher brought it up, I knew she hated it, she asked me "Why is this a feminist novel?" and I told her that I don't think it is, regarding today's standards. She was shocked, I can tell you that, and afterwards we had a great conversation about it and it was - up to today - the best exam I ever had. Jane is a complex character, she seems simple, but she isn't. Yes, when this came out it was unlikely for a governess to be the heroine, to be the one the master falls in love with, nonetheless, she does not function without her love and that is what does not make her a 21st century heroine. That having been said... the dialogues in this book are simply to die for! I have been rereading some chapters over and over again yearly! If you have not read it yet, please do!

8) William Shakespeare - Much Ado About Nothing

OK, you can argue with me, this isn't a book, however, plays are something to learn from! Don Pedro and his men reside in the house of Senior Leonato after the war, where two young men find a wife for themselves, amidst the evil jokes of Don John. This was my favorite play growing up, even today I have to get the original in my hands before writing a script! "Dear Beatrice, have you wept all this while?", each and every adaptation of this play is marvelous (except for the one by Joss Whedon... that movie was shit!). However, despite the adaptations it is wonderful to read Shakespeare in its original. Yes, the dramas and the tragedies are award winning of course, but because of that so many Shakespeare plays sometimes get forgotten... at my university, for example, the teachers keep focusing on three or four plays and I have friends who hate Shakespeare because of that and that always makes me sad... this brings up back to the 'must read' category that schools force you into. If you are gonna hate Shakespeare make sure you have seen more than one of the layers he can offer! Also read this play :)

7) Jay McInerney - Bright Lights, Big City

I actually saw the adaptation first, with Michael J. Fox, Kiefer Sutherland and Phoebe Cates. I found it by mistake among discounted DVDs and I have to say that I liked it a lot. It was different, very different from a lot of stories and the end, where the main character trades in his sunglasses for a loaf of bread to enjoy at the light of dawn... I saw myself there for a second. I got the book because I wanted to write about it for my American Literature class (you can read my essay here!), and I have to admit the book made me love the story even more. Admittedly, I was not left by my wife and tried very hard to replace her with drugs, but that is just the environment. The main character, more precisely, the city around him are what get you interested. How the night turns into days, in the city that never sleeps. Great book with a great adaptation as well. It is ultimately the story of how it gets worse before it gets better, but it does get better.

6) Margaret Atwood - The Penelopiad

I got this book as a gift from one of my best friends for my birthday. It was a great book. Think about all the books you had to read in school and hating them... just hate... continuously asking yourself why you have to read it and wonder if the characters in it enjoyed it at all? (OK, maybe that is just me connecting with the characters as I write a lot, but still, the question is there!) Well, here you go, the wife of Odysseus/Ulysses, Penelope, years after her death, having maintained her duties as a good wife decides to tell her version of the story. How she had to sit and wait for the husband who cheated to get her to marry him and then left her for ten years. It is a great twist on a classic that we were all forced to endure. I very much enjoyed this book, gives you a perspective into how skillful Margaret Atwood is and her knowledge of the classics. Fun reading from a great writer.

5) Pablo De Santis - El Enigma de Paris (The Paris Enigma)

An Argentine boy decides to take lessons from a great detective who sends him to the Exposition Universelle in Paris (1889). Many believe that he is a sidekick sent by the great detective to do reckon in his name, when he was infact trained to be a detective himself. Among the many stages at the expo there is one dedicated to the greatest detectives in the world, 12 of them, and the one from Paris becomes the victim of a killing. The main character investigates his death as the assistant of the Belgian detective, only to become the one who cracks the case. I've found this book by accident in a used English book store and has become one of my favorites. I love detective stories and this one was incredibly intricate, with several characters, but nobody was forgotten and nobody was left out of the story. Simply brilliant!

4) Susan Collins - The Hunger Games

In the dictatorship of Panem, children of the twelve districts are forced to fight for their lives in the Hunger Games. One year, however, a boy and a girl from district twelve decide to escape this hell together, but their victory only brings them more misery and the wrath of the dictator of Panem. A revolution begins at the end of the second book, and they become victorious in the end, but war has a lot of casualties. I read these three books in three days. I just could not put them down. I wanted to know what happens. I loved Katniss very much, I don't know why because she wined a lot and she was repetitive and that kind of behavior can get boring very fast. But I still cared for her. And the love triangle was built up much better than in many other books, and each character got from A to B, logical steps and for me personally a very satisfying ending. I have re-read them a couple of times, can't get enough of the dialogue in Catching Fire.

3) Kurt Vonnegut - Cat's Cradle

Our narrator, John, recounts how he met the sons of Felix Hoenikker, a Nobel laureate physicist who helped develop the atomic bomb. He is also responsible for a material called ice-nine which turns liquid into solid form. We find out in the end that the narrator is telling us this story from an island where he was stranded for life after an accident... I don't want to spoil it for you reader! I read this book in one sitting. It was assigned to us in an American Literature class and I will always be grateful for the teacher. I just couldn't stop until I finished. One of the most well written books in existence. Short, to the point, fantastic characters and a breath taking story... it gives you something to think about and that is what good books should do. That, and entertain you!

2) Stephen King - 11/22/63

Recommended to me because my thesis covered the Kennedy assassination, this became quickly one of my favorite books. Jake Epping travels back in time to try and stop the murder of President Kennedy, but in the meantime falls in love and almost risks everything, perhaps even the universe itself, to save her. The past keeps fighting back as Jake learns that the past does not want to be changed. This book made me fall in love with the writing of King and I learned a lot from him since then. I am not much into horror, there is a certain amount of thriller I am fine with, and this book was just that. I recommend it whole heartedly to anyone who likes time travel, historical fiction and is not a big fan of horror. (And the TV adaptation as well, as it is a wonderful mini-series! Read my review of it here!)

1) David Lodge - Small World

This was the book that got me into writing prose. Until then I mostly concentrated on dialogues, plays, scripts and this book made me want to write about the background of the characters. I reached a point where I wanted for the reader to see what I saw. I got lost in the details and it fascinated me, it still does! A good book does that to you, makes you want to grab pen and paper, even if you are not a writer, even if you just end up drawing something, still, you wish to create. And all of these books you just saw on my list do that to me, they make me want to create!
This book discusses the adventures of a young professor from Ireland who wishes to find a woman he met at a conference. During his travels to seek her out he meets people from all around the world, whom are all connected, either through their studies or area of research or simply by coincidence because the world is small! I read this book before starting my studies at the university and I enjoyed it immensely. It is the second book of Lodge's "Campus Trilogy", after Changing Places (1975) and before Nice Work (1988). I can still recall a lot or parts of it by heart and since then each year at a book festival here in Budapest I buy a book from David Lodge and I will do so until I collect them all! Lodge has to be my favorite author and I recommend his work to everyone!

This was my little list of books that changed my way of thinking, my inspiration towards writing and my wish to practice and practice until I can finally become just maybe 1/10 of the writer my favorites are. 

Let me know what you like to read, maybe recommend me something, just please, let it be shorter than 600 pages... I will have a lot to do this upcoming semester :)

Until the next item on my list!

Wednesday, February 8, 2017

What's Next On My List? First Blood

Growing up I was a big fan of Sylvester Stallone. And this is the third year that I am dedicating February to Stallone movies. And why wouldn't I? They are awesome: even the silly ones have charm to them. So please enjoy the third installment of #StalloneMonth

Johnny Rambo gets back from the Vietnam war and he tries to find an old friend of his, only to discover that he died of cancer. Feeling that nobody can escape death he just tries to get a meal in the nearby town, but war flashbacks distract him when the local sheriff tries to arrest him. He flees into the mountains and the police pursues him, but many are injured because Rambo works better in the field. The person who trained Rambo, Trautman, shows up to get him back as he knows that nobody will be able to stop him. In the end, Rambo tells him what caused the flashbacks and he is arrested for the damage he caused. 

This movie was so stupid. It was literally the dumbest thing I have ever seen. And I tell you why that makes me sad: it had a good message but the delivery was terrible. If it just had been a dumb action movie, then I could have enjoyed it as I would not have looked for a message, or a moral to the story. The idea behind it was that those protesting the Vietnam war also protested the soldiers who were drafted, who had no choice, and who solely went in belief of protecting their own country. Admittedly barely do movies concentrate on that. Veterans are, on paper, respected but that is not always the case. The movie tried to focus on that, but it did so only in the last 10 minutes where Rambo had a monologue about how he was received when he got back into the states:

"Nothing is over! Nothing! You just don't turn it off! It wasn't my war! You asked me, I didn't ask you! And I did what I had to do to win! But somebody wouldn't let us win! And I come back to the world and I see all those maggots at the airport, protesting me, spitting. Calling me baby killer and all kinds of vile crap! Who are they to protest me, huh? Who are they? Unless they've been me and been there and know what the hell they're yelling about!"

This is all well and good and actually I can't think of many movies that tackled this problem. They might do today, but almost 99% of them focus on the post-traumatic stress disorder soldiers suffer from. And that was clearly what Rambo had, and when you think about it, it is great that we can now pinpoint and see that this isn't something that can be handled by being "tough". But here comes my problem with the movie... Sheriff Teasle stops him and says that he doesn't want fellows like him in his town. Like who? People who fought for their country? And then he says that his jacket might cause a problem. It has a flag and "U.S. Army" written on it.... I'm pretty sure that in the 70s people who fought in the Second World War respected young soldiers, actually, I know that for a fact. So what was his problem?! There is absolutely no explanation to this sheriff's beef. Did he not like his hair?
Rambo is then arrested and the old officers are total assholes with him. Why?! Why are police officers the bad guys? Why do they disrespect soldiers? And at the half of the movie they find out that he is a special operative and the man who trained him comes to get him and only then, ONLY then do some of them go "maybe this was a bad idea"... you think?! One of the young policemen keeps showing discomfort over hurting an ex soldier and that just raises so many questions in me... one, is this unusual or usual for this town? Two, if this does bother them why not report their bosses? Three, I know that the movie was supposed to end in that big monologue and although that was setup nicely, when you look at it, Rambo did not kill anyone, proving again that he is not the bad guy. Without a motivation, how can I not hate the police? Of course I want Rambo to win, because unless I zoned out there was absolutely no reason for the sheriff's behavior. This is why today bad guys have so many layers, because you have to understand why they do, what they do. Here? You didn't. You had a sheriff who seemed to care about his precious town and look what happened when he was an asshole to a total stranger! What is the lesson here?

I am sorry to be so down on this movie, but if it weren't for asshole sheriff there would be no movie. And the message of the movie is good. Veterans should not be treated like shit by people who know nothing about war. Unless you are a psychopath you can safely assume that nobody likes killing. So why hate veterans? I just don't get that. I don't get half of this movie, whatever the message. I can't wait to check out the sequels, maybe they will make more sense...

Until the next item on my list!
_ _ _ _ _ _

Teasle - Brian Dennehy
Trautman - Richard Cenna

Wednesday, February 1, 2017

What's Next On My List? Daylight

Growing up I was a big fan of Sylvester Stallone. And this is the third year that I am dedicating February to Stallone movies. And why wouldn't I? They are awesome: even the silly ones have charm to them. So please enjoy the third installment of #StalloneMonth

Due to an accident there is a toxic waste explosion in the tunnel leading from New York to New Jersey in the morning rush hour. Outside of the tunnel an expert of the system of the tunnels, thanks to a simulation, Kit Latura volunteers to go inside and help those who are presumed to have survived the blast. Once inside the tunnel starts to collapse and the water above them starts to flood it. They slowly advance within the tunnel and find a way out, but many die in the process, and Kit himself falls behind from the group and is left to find a way out on his own.

I was not prepared for the impact that this movie had on me. Let me say, first off, that I am kind of bored of action movies that have one hero that comes in and kicks down doors and saves the day. Of course, they can be a lot of fun, and sometimes they are, but I do look for a human element sometimes, and I have found that here. You see, Stallone's character was... amazing. Talk about great acting! I just love this guy so much! He arrives, trying very hard to help and he is not a superhero! He is not a MacGyver type that can make a bomb out of a paper-clip. He comes in, not knowing what to expect and you can see him scared, worried, looking for a way to help the ones around him and himself. There is one scene where he tells one of the man who broke their neck that they have to leave him behind and it was so heart wrenching.
In another he found a place for them to hide and he sits there, wet, freezing to death, shaking and trying hard to stay warm. He is no longer jumping around, making sure everyone is OK, assuring them that everything will be fine! Because it might not be. He might die here with them, but he made a choice to do the best he can, unfortunately that does not mean that he himself won't get scared in the process. I was in awe watching this movie, it was so 90s, with the music already letting you know when shit is about to hit the fan, and you know already that the black guy is going to die, also the elderly are in danger... but the dog survived and that alone made me so happy that I cannot tell you.

Watch it? Yes. To be honest I have seen that on imdb realistic action movies get a terrible rating... I don't get that. I sure understand that action movies that have a more fantastic world and unreal physics can be a lot of fun, but many times these get comments like "that could never happen!", so why not like the one that does it right? It's just a typical situation of not being able to give people what they want... as they themselves don't know what they want! That said, it is a great movie and I do recommend it whole heartedly! Especially if you are looking for a good Stallone movie!

Until the next item on my list!
_ _ _ _ _ 

Kit Latura - Sylvester Stallone
Madelyne Thompson - Amy Brenneman
Grace Calloway - Vanessa Bell Calloway
George Tyrell - Stan Shaw
Norman Bassett - Barry Newman
Roy Nord - Viggo Mortensen

Sunday, January 29, 2017

Homework: An Interdisciplinary Approach to American English

This semester I started my masters in American studies, which is the reason why I had so little time to write for the blog. Now I had one class in particular that was very entertaining (fine, they all were!!) as we discussed as a group 'language' as a live entity, someone who could be sitting there with us. This approach helped us understand the changes from a historical point of view as well as see the that a language can have and has a character. I always enjoyed seminars much more at the university, and I was never very smart or interested when it came to linguistics. This class, however, got me involved in ways that were unprecedented. I was lucky, because the teacher was very open minded and I could write my essay on something that is very close to my heart: Hawaiian Creole English. Hawaiian culture has been slowly embedding itself in my heart and I try to learn Hawaiian on my own for no other reason then my amusement of the structure of the language. So when it came to my original topic, regional dialects, I couldn't help but notice that maps and research barely covered the 50th state and so I decided to finally gather all that knowledge I had accumulated over the years into one big paper. My teacher pointed out two main elements that were missing, a few examples when I discussed the grammatical structure of the creole (for which I suggest looking up the sources you'll find at the end of the essay if you are interested!!); and a view of the people of the island of their own language. To be honest, I hope I can research this on the spot one day, and then I'll be able to include it :) Until then, enjoy this first version of my paper!
_ _ _ _ _ _ 

Examining Hawaiian Creole as a Regional Dialect

The official language of the United States on a national level is English; however, this English varies greatly in pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, around the country mostly due to geography. Because of its the immense territory it has become harder and harder to delineate the regional dialects spoken in the country, but it is easier to observe the English spoken in Alaska and Hawaii as they rejoice in a physical distance from continental USA. This distance is also negative since as a result they are not included among maps that showcase the differences in vocabulary use in different regions of the country. Linguist Hans Kurath tried to classify regional dialects into Northern, Midland, and the Southern area (Kövecses 63). But this classification has been tested and proven to be only superficial over the years. In a recent study conducted by Ph.D student Joshua Katz from North Carolina State University, words with the same meaning were listed and people could vote on the variant that they used to showcase dialectal differences in the various states (Hickey). This experiment had already been conducted several years ago by asking people to say which expression they used for “carbonated soft drinks”, and the results showed many variants (Kövecses 72). Katz’s research had the intention of drawing up maps in order to help see the different dialects and how hard it is to point out where one begins and the other one finishes as they are not based on state lines. But Alaska and Hawaii were left out, although when it comes to the composition of the English spoken on the territory, they are regions themselves that had natives living on the lands and whose language was influenced by settlers a great deal. “American English is characterized by both uniformity and variation and heterogeneity” (Kövecses 73), and overall about two thirds of the population actually speak the same dialect. This very isolation factors in as it is capable of causing much greater divide among the dialects of a given language.
Hawaii in particular, being one of the most famous tourist destinations is always exposed to the newer and newer variants of the English language. When talking about regional dialects, by definition, we are talking about “a regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, especially a variety of speech differing from the standard literary language or speech pattern of the culture in which it exists” (“regional dialect”). When starting a research based on the definition above stated, both the 49th and the 50th state should be included and as such it is the aim of this paper to dissertate Hawai’i Creole English as one of the regional dialects of the United States. First, the dialect itself will be analyzed, followed by the historical background and a description of the substrate that influenced it. Afterwards the current state of this dialect within the state will be given, amidst examples of the American character’s presence in this regional dialect. In the essay the term “Hawaiian” will refer to the native tongue of the indigenous or aboriginal people of the islands, while Hawai’i Creole or Pidgin (with capital letters) will refer to the Hawaiian Creole English spoken today.
Hawai’i Creole is hard to define because it has a very intense history. We speak of dialects when the language “of a group of speakers shows systematic differences but these speakers can nevertheless understand each other” (Kövecses 52), such is the case with this dialect as “Hawaiian Creole English is pretty much mutually unintelligible with standard English” (Wilton). What is considered Standard American English also comes from a dialect-based variety that was spoken on the continent. Because it was used by newscasters, soon enough it was the one spoken in the Midwestern area that became the standard (Kövecses 202). On a geographical level Hawai’i Creole English does not only exist in the isolation of the islands of Hawaii, but can be found outside as well: speakers of it can occur within Florida, in the Orlando area; within Nevada, around Las Vegas; and mainly the west coast. The majority of speakers are, however, situated in Hawaii, as out of the population of 600,000 (according to a census from 2012), only 100,000 live in continental America (Lewis, Simons and Fennig). This dialect has no subdialects, just variations because of the vast amount of other tongues spoken on the islands.
This Creole developed from Pidgin English spoken on the sugar and pineapple plantations and has a mixture of words of Japanese and Portuguese origin in it as well. Pidgin is a combination of expressions and phrases and because of that it is recognizable for speakers of it, but for the foreign listener it might come off as slang (Wong). Pidgin was needed to help the communication among two different tongues, but once that version is taught as a native language then it becomes a creole (“Definitions”). Contact between English and other languages always gave rise to new variants; it was the same when it came to the islands.  When the previous language of Polynesian origin came into contact with the settlers’ English, the new variant was born which evolved over the years into what today is known as Hawai’i Creole English (“Major Regional Dialects”). It should be pointed out that both creole and pidgin are technical terms, and while linguist use them to differentiate an official tongue from an unofficial one, the speakers of the given dialect may prefer one over the other; such is the case with Hawaiians, who refer to their English variant as “Pidgin” (“Definitions”). This Pidgin became more stable around 1896, when the first generation of locally born speakers grew equal to that of the speakers of the superstrate language ("Substrate Influence").
To understand how this Pidgin works, there is necessity in examining the language from multiple angles. First, a historical background to the origins of the variant of English spoken on the islands of Hawaii has to be established. The archipelago in question is a group of eight islands: Hawai’i, Maui, Kaua’i, Lāna’i, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau Kaho’olawe, with the capital Honolulu residing on O’ahu (Riley 64). The islands, being in the North Pacific Ocean, were an important stop both strategically and geographically during colonization. The first settlers arrived towards the end of the 18th century and over the decades a lot of different nationalities have come and gone. These included China, Portugal, Japan, Korea, Spain, and even the Philippines before the English arrived around 1820 (Delaney and Hargrove, Sakoda and “Definitions”). It was estimated “that there were 683,000 Native Hawaiians on the island in 1778, when British explorer Capt. James Cook arrived” (Goo). Second, what is considered the standard Creole on the islands today “is part of the Western dialect family but shows less influence from the early New England dialect than any other American dialect” (Delaney). The inflections in the language are simplified using Hawaiian accents and many times the intonation remained Polynesian. Testament to the latter is that intonation rises in the middle of the sentence and then falls, rather than rising at the end as it does in English (Wilton).
American English can be said to be informal in pronunciation and spelling (Kövecses 220), not only that but it is also very inventive. The only reason why these pidgins could come to life in the first place is due to the fact that there is flexibility in how English is used and created. American English can easily be said to be the most innovative in its nature, and that can be demonstrated in the grammar of Hawaiian Creole as well (253). The grammar of the language is quite easy, as the tongue uses tense and aspect markers when conjugating, otherwise the verb without any marker is used to talk about things that happen all the time or are not defined in time. For past events the Hawaiian uses wen before the main verb and for future events go, gon or gona. For events that are in progress the language borrowed from the English, as many times it can have an -ing ending. Otherwise the auxiliary ste is put before the verb (Hargrove, Sakoda and Siegel). Sentences that give location also use the word ste, stay; to say there is/are the word get is used, while the past tense uses haed. Hawaiian Creole many times does not require any verb for a sentence to be correct, which is a quality it shares with other languages, rather than with English (Hargrove, Sakoda and Siegel). When it comes to verb negation the word neva is put in front of the main verb in the sentence (Thompson).
It has to be underlined that this is not redundancy in the dialect, as the spelling of the words changed because it wished to be faithful to their pronunciation (Kövecses 179). As a matter of fact, the grammatical composition in the Pidgin is a testament to the economic nature of American English, which wished to simplify the British English variant spoken in the thirteen colonies. This process of simplification began immediately after the War of Independence. Linguistic economy seeks to eliminate or avoid redundancy and superfluity (Kövecses 185). American English always prided itself in the differences from its British counterpart, by dropping extra vowels or irregular forms of verbs; it became easier for foreign learners. This economic nature is deeply embedded in the Hawaiian dialect: not only does it come from the simplicity of the Hawaiian native language, but it even managed to simplify an already easy English variant.
The tongue has a syllable-times rhythm, so the syllables have approximately the same length, like in Spanish and Italian. The sound /θ/ as in thin and the sound /ð/ as in then are replaced by /t/ and /d/ respectively, e.g., thin is pronounced as /tin/ and then is pronounced as /den/. The article the is pronounced as /da/ and finally the sound /r/ after vowels is dropped, e.g., better is pronounced as /beta/ (Thompson).
It is important to remember that the composition of Hawaiian Creole cannot be reduced to two steps, as it is the case with many Neo-Latin languages. Those tongues developed with a substrate language spoken on the territory that was then overwritten by a superstrate language. Although there is some similarity, as Hawaiian spoken by the natives on the islands is considered the substrate that influenced it, English cannot be considered the one and only superstrate language. As it was demonstrated so far, most grammatical and pronunciation features of Hawaiian Creole do not resemble English in any way. The stability of this Pidgin, as stated before in the paper, was solidified at the end of the 1800, what followed was the beginning of the 1900, which saw a rise in second generation locally born speakers of the dialect. These included men of Chinese, Portuguese and Japanese descent (“Substrate Influence”). These three, more than any other tongue, can be found repeatedly in the etymology of Hawaiian words. The composition of this tongue has several levels, and even if ultimately it was dubbed an English dialect, initially it was influenced mostly by other languages. In the end it was justifiably considered an English dialect not for its vocabulary or grammar, but for its character. Another testament to that is the straightforward notion of this dialect. Just like American English, the idea is to make sure that language is easily followed and understood by all speakers (Kövecses 186). Alaska and Hawaii are special for another reason when discussing regional dialects: they have enforced and kept most of their native cultural traits alive as much as it was possible over the years. On continental America there is a social-psychological reason which enforced unity among the states, and even if many of these were adapted even outside of the country, it is still mostly uniform only within the continent (Kövecses 73).
In this second part of the essay the substrate, Hawaiian native tongue, will be analyzed in order to help understand how their Pidgin is constructed. Ultimately, language is, without question one of the key components to get to know someone’s culture, and it was this that motivated Joshua Katz to compile the maps on regional dialects. He said: “To me, dialect is a badge of pride; it's something that says ‘this is who I am; this is where I come from’”, and the speakers of the native Hawaiian tongue had greatly diminished over the years. Today it is considered one of the world’s endangered languages, as there are only about a thousand native speakers, and the majority are over 70 years old (Wilton). Native Hawaiian is a recognized racial classification and in “the 2010 Census: 527,077 people reported that they are Native Hawaiian alone or of a mixed race that includes Native Hawaiian” (Launia) out of the 1.4 million population of Hawaii. “U.S. Native Hawaiian population today, 36% identify as two races and 26% identify as three races; only a third – 33% – identify as only Native Hawaiian” (Goo), which is around 8000 people.
When settlers arrived, besides their own language, they also brought diseases which significantly decreased the population of native speakers on the islands (Hargrove, Sakoda and Siegel). What followed was the prohibition of the language at the end of the 19th century for native speakers in schools, and soon enough in their homes as well (“The Language of Ni‘ihau”). It was here that isolation resulted in the salvation of the language as each island was treated differently. The island of Ni’ihau escaped the near extinction of the language, but this also brought about a different dialect, leaving the island the only one that uses Hawaiian as its first and only language (“The Language of Ni‘ihau”). Thankfully the language had a renaissance era and today “thousands of people study the Hawaiian language and other aspects of Hawaiian culture” (“Hawaii's Languages”). The Hawaiian dialect is closely related to many others of Polynesian origin, among them Tahitian, Maori, Marquesan, Rarotongan, Samoan and Tongan.
During the 1800s the island of Hawai'i became one of the most literate nations in the whole world, with 90% of its population able to read and write and was the first one western of the Rocky Mountains to have its own newspaper. As always printed press helped the learning of the language, and oppression of the language, as stated earlier in the paper, did not become into full effect until 1898, leaving older generations able to pass on their language (“The Language of Ni‘ihau”). The country, previously a monarchy, was known for its rich oral history, but due to the pages of their newspaper still available today and the propaganda to establish written materials helps in the study of the language. These were written with the standard English alphabet, the same way Pidgin is written today (Thompson).
The Hawaiian native language itself is famous for having the fewest number of letters, only twelve: five vowels (a, e, i, o, u) and seven consonants (h, k, l, m, n, p, w; Riley 5). The language itself if full of glottal stops which are called ‘okina, and they are signaled with a stress mark in writing (‘). ‘Okina occurs between two vowels. Many guides and dictionaries, as well as grammar books of the language count this glottal stop among the consonants, making the alphabet of all together thirteen letters (5). In Hawaiian the vowels have two sounds, based on whether or not they are stressed or unstressed, and if there is a line above them, called kahako (eg. ā, as in the island of Lāna’i) they are pronounced by drawing out the sound. These, however, “should not be confused with the bar or macron that is used to differentiate an English ‘long’ vowel from a ‘short’ vowel, as in the words hate and hat, respectively” (“Hawaii's Languages”), because in Hawaiian the usage of kahako means a difference in meaning as well (akau - right; ākau - North). The vowels can merge into diphthongs, which is quite common in the language (Riley 6).
As there was no written form of the language when the missionaries arrived, they had a hard time learning and annotating the language. Once they did write down testimonies and collections of words and expressions, they did so without the ‘okina or the kahako, which was no problem for the natives, but it would be for anyone wishing to learn the language. This is the reason why today there are so many variants, both without and with the proper markings; the simplest example is the island of Oahu which, for natives, is written as O’ahu, but the one without the ‘okina is so widely spread that it sometimes overwrites the correct one (“Hawaii’s Languages”). There is also a difference as the state of Hawaii is not the same as the island of Hawai’i, which is one of the eight in the archipelago. The latter, written with the ‘okina, is also used to denote the Creole spoken on the islands; in order to underline that the second “i” does not merge into the one preceding it when pronouncing the word the ‘okina cannot be omitted. Even the name of the state should be pronounced as such; although the spelling has no ‘okina those pronouncing it as [hə-wä′y] instead of [hə-wä′ē] are doing it incorrectly (“Hawaii”).  
The Hawaiian Islands are listed among the top tourist destinations today and their language has contributed to the vocabulary of standard American English over the years. One of the major reasons this was possible was through Hollywood, as several movies after and because of the Second World War were shot on the islands. Many, at first, just used the natural beauties it had to offer, but soon enough movies discussed the cultural heritage of the 50th state. Before this dialect was recognized, the residing children, many still of Portuguese descent, until the last quarter of the 19th century, were taught Hawaiian, and English was taught as a foreign language ("Substrate Influence"). Meanwhile they spoke a form of pidgin at home and it was the mixture of all of these that influenced the vocabulary of today’s Hawaiian Creole English (Hargrove, Sakoda and “Definitions”). Because Hawaii was just a territory of the U.S. for over a hundred years, it did not have in the same rights as other states, and as such there the American’s rejoiced in supremacy. This is one of the reasons why natives and their tongue could be cast aside and English could be enforced. Hawaii only became a state in 1959 (Goo), years after the Second World War and years after the attack on Pearl Harbor. The latter is considered one of the greatest tragedies of American history.
There are several words from this dialect that have embedded themselves in the English language and are now of everyday use. The most well-known is the greeting aloha, followed by the common abbreviation of brother, brah (in slang it is most commonly used for friend). Others include haole, a non-Hawaiian, Caucasian person; hula referring to the dance performed by natives which is taught not only on the continent outside of the islands but everywhere else in the world as well; kahuna meaning priest, healer, or sorcerer, and as such it often refers to someone who was power over others; lei, for the garland of flowers; luau, an outdoor feast by fire light; poi, a dish made from fermented taro root and ukulele, the four string instrument (Wilton). Later on the ending of ukulele would be used for another instrument: banjolele, which is a miniature banjo with four chords like its name giver. This is a typical example of backformation in which the new word is made by removing the ending of another word (Kövecses 263), the ending –lele did not signal the size of the instrument, nonetheless the ukulele is widely considered as a smaller version of the guitar, thus the name speaks for itself. This language also originated the name of one of the most famous contemporary websites: the word wiki means fast, so the compound word Wikipedia alludes to a fast way to get the same amount information we would get from an encyclopedia (Thompson).
Being another dialect of the English language, just as it is in other regional dialects, some word combinations have different meanings, like stink eye means “dirty look” and chicken skin can mean “goose bumps”. This dialect also shares words that have completely different meaning than in the English: choke means a “vast amount”, so the definition choke cars would translate to “heavy traffic”; while grind means “to eat”. Another example is the word beef, which in the sense of “to have a beef with someone” can mean a disagreement in AmE too, but in Hawaiian Creole English it literally means “fight” (Hargrove, Sakoda and Siegel). In Hawaiian the words have no plural form, to pluralize them a “nā” is put in front of the word (book – puke, books – nā puke); as such any and all words that are of Hawaiian origin but have the standard -s ending to signal the plural have been added from the English variant of the language (Riley 6).
A little over a year ago Hawaiian Creole English was accepted as the national language of Hawaii, which means that it is no longer considered just a dialect. Although it is considered and accepted as a national language, defining it is still problematic because there are over 100 other languages spoken on the islands all together (Laddaran). Even the speakers of this language define it as “the local, slang-sounding vernacular” (Wong). Slang can be defined as a variety of a language that goes against the norms of the standard in order for the speakers of it to differentiate them, and as such this Creole does count as slang rather than a separate language (Kövecses 119). The problem comes with integrating Pidgin as a language. In order to enforce it education has been encouraged to introduce it in schools to help students find the grammatical differences between it and standard American English at an early age, in order to be able to grasp it much better later on (Wong). The language itself is blooming as the literacy rate according to the 2012 census is between 66%-75%, with it being taught as an elective for native and nonnative children, and also in primary school. It is also used for radio and television programs (Lewis, Simons and Fennig).
The fact that it has been accepted as a separate tongue could mean changes in the way African American Vernacular English or Chicano English are looked at (Wong). It is important to remember that although English is the national language of the United States, it is not the language stipulated on a federal level. As a matter of fact, speakers whose mother tongue is other than English are becoming the majority in the U.S. just in the past two years (Burgen). This also alludes to the idea that perhaps the word creole or pidgin no longer do justice to denoting the language, still, it has to be differentiated as Hawaiian language is that of the native indigenous speakers of the island. An inconclusive research conducted from 2009 to 2013 found that those who spoke Hawaiian Creole English used it generally as a second language, but a language nonetheless (Wong). Calling the individuals who participated in the research bilinguals elevated this dialect into a tongue spoken by majority of the residents of the islands. This Creole became a nationally accepted language at the end of 2015, which means that it is young as far as languages are concerned, but it is very old as a pidgin, even older than the United States.
In conclusion, when studying regional dialects of the United States, each region has to be looked at closer, not just the ones on continental America. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate that Alaska and Hawaii are always taken aside, and for good reason, but their history and the birth of their dialect shares a lot in common with what is considered today the standard American English. When looking at regional dialects pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary as well as geography play an important role in defining them. The Hawaiian Islands, prior to becoming a state, were visited by several countries seeking colonies in the Northern Pacific Ocean. The islands had a tongue of their own, which served as a substrate that influenced the language spoken today. There are over a 100 languages spoken there and these continually influence the Pidgin of the island. Although this Pidgin originated from the encounter of Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese, before the addition of English, it still possesses those character traits that are typical of American English. It is economic in its nature, somewhat informal, thus straightforward, and it is considered to be a form of slang by its speakers as well. The majority of residents of Hawaii were deemed bilingual in 2015 which elevated the Pidgin to national language of the 50th state of the U.S.A. English in America is just a national language, it is not accepted on a federal level and this means that Hawai’i Creole does not clash with the standard, and now other Pidgins spoken within the country could be elevated to the status of language. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate that despite the distance of the archipelago of Hawaii, it was still incredibly fruitful in its history and contribution to what is considered standard American English. Hawaii should be included and studied among the regional dialects, rather than be neglected, precisely because of its isolation. The distance from the continent emphasizes the differences; however, on a closer look it seems that there are a lot of similarities that justify its classification as an English dialect.

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